The purpose of this document is to serve as a guide for research to support national partners to plan, finance, and implement the agricultural Nationally Determined Contributions. This is a summary of the collaborative and evolving process initiated by the partnership between the International Rice Research Institute and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam..
Agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally, especially in industrially developing (“transforming”) economies that are currently heavily dependent on income from agriculture, such as Vietnam.
The country has identified agriculture-related emission reduction commitments for its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in the Paris Agreement. However, methods for moving from commitments to developing and implementing action plans for agricultural NDCs have not been well documented.
In order for national governments to move beyond “business as usual” scenarios to meeting their NDC commitments with financial and implementation support from international organizations, concrete, actionable, and replicable methods to understanding and measuring mitigation scenarios are necessary for planning and targeting investment strategies.
The purpose of this document is to serve as a guide for research to support national partners to plan, finance, and implement the agricultural NDCs. This is a summary of the collaborative and evolving process initiated by the partnership between the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) of Vietnam.
As the third largest exporter of rice globally, Vietnam’s rice sector is a major contributor to national greenhouse gas emissions, surpassing the transport and industrial sectors. Vietnam ranks globally as one of the countries most affected by climate change and this will only worsen in the future, leaving millions vulnerable to natural disasters and food insecure.
Efforts to reduce GHG emissions from rice production are a national priority for achieving Vietnam’s nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Unlike the livestock industry where the animal itself is responsible for the majority of emissions, in rice production it is not the plant per se that is the culprit of GHG production, rather it is the way in which the crop is grown and managed that makes a difference in the amount of GHGs emitted.
The single largest factor influencing the amount of GHG emitted from rice production is the management of water. The process of alternating between wet periods and dry periods during rice production is herein referred to as alternate wetting and drying (AWD) which has been proven to reduce GHG emissions in rice production by 30%-70% without affecting yields.
Given that changes in water management represent the highest potential to mitigate GHGs in rice production, the following sections will explain the process of actions needed to define suitable areas, plan, and target investment for achieving the NDCs. This document details the process for engaging national partners and supporting agricultural NDC implementation.
Outline of the process:
● Map suitable area for AWD (climatic suitability and adoption capacity)
● Validate and merge maps through participatory verification process to define target regions
● Perform cost-benefit analysis for mitigation strategies based on maps
● Calculate GHG emissions of rice production area and model reduction scenarios
● Standardize methods for measuring, reporting, and verification
● Collaborate with national partners to develop investment plans to take NDC actions to scale
● Create long-term financial plans for securing funding to achieve NDCs
● Secure funding sources for next stages of NDC action
Read the technical paper:
Nelson KM, Bui TY, Sander BO. 2021. Guide to supporting agricultural NDC implementation: GHG mitigation in rice-production in Vietnam.